- a piece of cryptographic information used for encrypting data by a chosen algorithm
- Certificate Signing Request CSR
- a process in which person or server asks for his key being signed. Thus allowing others you verify the the key belongs to them.
- Certificate Authority CA
- a person or a server that is trusted and signs your certificates requests.
- Client Side Certificate CSC
- a file given to a user to prove its identity it usually comes in .p12 format and is instlled into web browsers. CSC are obtained usually by sending a CSR to a CA.
Our company has decided to make some of their webpages publicly accessible, but we did not want for anyone to see the actual content of our website. In other words we simply wanted to have a webpage that could only be accessed by our employees.
So we ended up using client side certificates CSC. CSC have been around for relatively long time but until today it yet seems to be not very popular. Use of client side certificates is very useful because you can identify users who want to access your website. It also can be used as good alternative for user name and password. Because CSC as mentioned previously helps to uniquely identify user who is connecting to your server.
How CSC are generated
But wait there’s two 🔏 🔏
As you know SSL in general is not as trivial. Maybe that is the reason why CSC are not used as often. But I will try to explain using this table below. To make things less convoluted this example contains one certificate authority. In reality you will probably have two of them. Why? Because one is used to issue a valid HTTPS certificate for your webpage. Even-though you can always use self signed certificates both for webpage and for a client (that connect to the website) I do not recommend that because, clients will have to go through screen like this:
But you probably know that already. And yes you can force your users to install your homebrew CA into their root certificate store this will only make things harder for you, because you will only confuse simple users even more.
Convoluted Table Time 🤷
follow the enumeration.
This example assumes you will be your own CA (a.k.a Your connection is not secure )
|kitty Certificate Authority (CA) 🔏||picture-server 🗄||eager-client 💻|
|1. Generates private key for him self kitty-ca.key|
|2. Signs his own private key, thus becomes CA|
|3. Step 2. yields a new file called a certificate: kitty-ca.crt|
|4. Server,generates private key for him self picure-server.key|
|5. Server wants to prove that his key belongs to him therefore he creates a
|6. File generated in step 5. is made from servers private key and looks like this: picture-server.csr|
|7. Servers sends his file to CA|
|8. kitty-ca accepts sent file and generates a certificate for Server: picture-server.crt|
|9. picture-server takes the new picture-server.crt file and add its to its apache or nginx configuration|
|10. picture-server is ready to prove his identity to client and serve encrypted pictures 🔐|
|11. eager-client want,for his pictures not to be available publically. He wants client-side-authentication (CSA)|
|12. for CSA eager-client has multiple options: 12.1 Generate private key for himself eager-client.key 12.2 eager-client, needs to prove that his key belongs to him therefore he creates a
|13. kitty-ca accepts sent file and generates a certificate for eager-client: eager-client.crt|
|14. eager-client converts eager-client.crt to the new eager-client.p12 file and add it to its Firefox, Chrome browsers or adds it to his keychain|
|15. eager-client connects to picture-server|
|16. picture-server trusts kitti-ca issued files eager-client.p12|
|17. picture-server serves eager-client a webpage full of pictures to an eager-client|
Translating To OpenSSL commands
Since Python uses OpenSSL under the hood I will also show you how to do all the necessary steps using OpenSSL command line. The numbered items represent the enumerated steps of table above.
openssl genrsa -out kitty-ca.key 4096
openssl req -config openssl.cnf \ -key kitty-ca.key -new -x509 -days 7300 \ -sha256 -extensions v3_ca -out kitty-ca.crt
openssl genrsa -out picture-server.key 2048
openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -sha256 \ -key picture-server.key \ -out picture-server.csr
openssl ca -config openssl.cnf \ -days 375 -notext -md sha256 \ -in picture-server.csr \ -out picture-server.crt
openssl genrsa -out eager-client.key 2048
openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -sha256 \ -key eager-client.key \ -out easger-client.csr
#13. / The actual client side generation part
openssl ca -config openssl.conf -notext -md sha256 \ -in eager-client.csr \ -out eager-client.crt
#14. / Conversion from crt –> p12
openssl pkcs12 -export \ -inkey eager-client.key \ -in eager-client.crt \ -out eager-client.p12
So if no noticed what we did here we just did same thing 3 times:
- generate certificate for kitty-ca (signs his own certificate)
- generate certificate for picture-server (kitty-ca signs picture-server’s certificate)
- generate certificate for eager-client (kitty-ca signs eager-client’s certificate)
In reality eager-client’s and picture-server’s certificates can be signed by two different Certificate Authorities (CAs) and they will still be able to trust each other. Because client side and server side authentication are not dependent on each other is any way (this example only made it that way). You could even have Only client side certification without HTTPS enabled on your server and it would still work (client would still be authenticated).
Release the Python 🐍
Running the Python
For running this code on your machine I highly recommend for you to install miniconda this will simply you installation tremendously because pip, OpenSSL, virtualenv comes with this installation out of the box.
Once you installed you miniconda. Restart your terminal app And run the Python script provided below in the gist.
This gist below contains everything you need to Issue your client a certificate and revoke it:
I hope you got a better grasp on HTTPS in general. One thing you should remember is that In client-side setup everyone has to have their own private key and their certificate, because certificates are objects that prove your identity. Not your private keys. Also private keys do not age meaning you can as for as many certificates you like with the same private key. The only thing that ages is your certificates.
In general all HTTPS initiative can be summarized in 3 simple steps:
- Create your private key
- Create a signing request for your key
- Get a certificate and prove you identity with it
You probably noticed acronym
crl used a lot in the Python snippet.
If you did and are curious about it. You will be able to find more info about it in
my next blogpost.